Due to the increasing use of in vitro models, the precise evaluation of tissue-specific parameters of such in vitro test systems has become a crucial factor in ensuring predictable results. Impedance spectroscopy, as a non-invasive method, serves as a reliable and efficient tool for quality control, as it minimally interferes with the system during testing. In this study, a refined impedance measurement system using nanostructured titanium nitride (TiN) electrodes is presented. This advanced material was used to study tissue maturation and barrier integrity changes in an in vitro intestinal model. Reduction of the interfering signal allowed for more detailed data extraction and biological interpretation. As a result, transepithelial electrical resistance values could be determined from Caco-2 cells in vitro tissue models without further mathematical analysis based on computer simulation. The novel design of a 3D-printed measurement attachment equipped with nanostructured TiN electrodes was used to continuously monitor the barrier integrity of Caco-2 cells during a permeability assay. In summary, a novel method for improving electrode properties for impedance spectroscopy that was developed here can be easily integrated into standardized endpoint measurements for qualifying a variety of in vitro test systems.
Nanostructured TiN-coated electrodes for high-sensitivity noninvasive characterization of in vitro tissue models
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